In-Text Citation


Selections from Books


Online Sources

Other Sources

Citing Other Sources in APA Style

Several other research sources can be cited in APA Style.  As a general rule, the References list entry should direct the reader to the original source, if possible.  It should describe details such as who presented the information, when it was presented, what the presentation was called, how it was presented, who published it, who sponsored it, when it was accessed, etc.  This page will provide examples of a few more sources that college students might use in their research; for additional assistance with citation, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or a reference librarian.  

Note that since personal communications cannot be recovered by someone reading your essay, they are not cited in the APA Reference list.  Instead they are only cited in-text.  Personal communications include email, letters, interviews, etc.  

The directions on this page deal with simple cases only.  You may need to adapt them to fit your sources using the other pages.  For example, the directions here for a lecture describe a lecture presented by one person.  If you are citing a lecture presented by two speakers, you need to look at the APA's specifications for two authors, perhaps on the page for books.

Quick index to citation examples described on this page:

To cite a pamphlet, follow the same guidelines as for a book.

Lecture or Speech -- can't find anything in APA manual -- shall we call it a "personal communication" too?

The components of a References list entry for a lecture or speech, listed in the proper order:  


Formatting Details

  • Include the speaker's last name, followed by a comma, followed by the first name.

  • For more than one speaker, see the citation style conventions for a book.

  Period (.)
  • Give the title of the presentation in quotation marks.
  • The period goes inside the quotation marks.  
  • If there is a title within the title or any quotation marks inside the title, transform the inner quotation marks to single quotes ("....'...'...").  
  • Click here for notes on capitalization.
  Period (.)
  • Include the name of the conference at which the speech was presented, or the sponsoring organization. 
  Period (.)
  • Include the location of the conference, i.e. the city (and the state if the city isn't common).
  Period (.)
  • Include the day, followed by month (abbreviated) and year (four digits), i.e. 28 Sept. 1993.  
  Period (.)

Citation Example (from The Publication Manual of the APA)

Fleenor, Juliann E.  "Illinois Women: Quilt-Making--History-Making."  Illinois,
     Beginning with Woman . . . Histories and Cultures [Conference].  Urbana-
     Champaign.  26 Mar. 1993.
(Dodds 338)

Citation Examples for Lectures at Juniata

Byron, Michael.  "The Universities Go to War: USAID and Higher Education in the 
     Republic of Vietnam."  Juniata College, Bookend Seminar.  Huntingdon, PA.  
     4 Apr. 2000. 
Kruse, Gerald.  "Using Massively Parallel Computers for Fluid Flow Simulation."  
     Juniata College, Mathematics Colloquium.  Huntingdon, PA.  24 Feb. 2000.

Television or Radio Program

The components of a References list entry for a TV or radio program, listed in the proper order:  


Formatting Details

  • Write the producer's name as you would normally format the author of a book.

  • Follow the name with the label "(Producer)" or "(Executive Producer)" (in parentheses as shown). 

  Period (.)
  • Include the year of broadcast, followed by a comma, followed by the month and day.
  • Use digits for the day and do not abbreviate the month.
  Period (.)
  • Include the title of the program, underlined or in italics.

  • Capitalize it as you would a book title. 

  Period (.)
  • Give the city from which the program was broadcast.  If it's not a well-known city, also give the state, using the postal state abbreviations
  • If the program is broadcast from more than one city, separate them with "and" and commas as is appropriate for a list. 
  Colon (:)
  • Give the call letters or name of the station carrying the broadcast. 
  Comma (,)

Citation Example (from The Publication Manual of the APA)

Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news
     hour. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.
(APA, 216)

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Created: 06/27/2000
Last Modified: 09/25/2002