In-Text Citation


Selections from Books


Online Sources

Other Sources

American Psychological Association Style - Introduction

This section of the Online Citation Guide deals with citing information in the American Psychological Association (APA) style.  APA style is used in psychology and education, among other disciplines.  

The APA citation style has two parts: in-text citation and a References list.  The in-text citation includes signal phrases and parenthetical citation.  It connects the information in the text with a source listed on the References list.  

The References list is included as a separate page at the end of the document.  The title "References" (in plain text, not italicized, underlined, in quotes, or otherwise enhanced) is placed at the top of the page and is centered.  A blank space is given, followed by each of the list entries.  Each list entry can take one of two styles: it can have a hanging indent style (i.e. the first line is flush with the left margin, but all subsequent lines are indented up to inch) or it can have the first line indented and all subsequent lines flush with the left margin.  The former is fine for most situations, but the latter is necessary for projects sent to APA journals for publication.  Check your instructor's preferences.  

Entries are listed in alphabetical order by the last name of the author.  If there is more than one work by the same author, arrange the works by the same author in ascending order by date. If there is an entry that begins with a title, the entry is alphabetized by its title (ignoring a, an, or the). 

This site includes the following pages:  

References List Entry Formats 

Other Notes

Books Parenthetical In-Text Citation
Selections from Books:
Anthologies, Encyclopedias, etc.  
Newspapers, Journals, Magazines
Cities that can be listed without States
Online Sources
Periodical Databases, World Wide Web, etc.
Notes on Formatting:
Punctuation, Italics and Underlining

The APA's Home Page doesn't provide any information on APA style.  Internet resources on APA citation are linked to the Online Citation Guide home page.

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Created: 06/27/2000
Last Modified: 09/25/2002