Selections from Books
In-Text Citation in CSE Style
In-text citation has two components:
- A signal phrase that lets the reader know the source
of the information. Often, the signal phrase is an excellent
way of making a transition from one part of your writing to the
next. It is a phrase of the general form "<author>
wrote..." It is also a good idea to describe the author's
credentials in the signal phrase.
- Parenthetical citation that directs the reader to the
exact entry of the reference list from which your information
Every time you "borrow" information in your writing,
you need to use some sort of in-text citation. Usually, that
will consist of both a signal phrase and parenthetical citation,
but, depending on the amount of information presented in each, one
or the other many not be necessary. The parenthetical citations
that work with specific signal phrase patterns are presented in
the table below.
Please note that in-text citations give credit to more than just
quotes. If you refer to any information that is not your own
personal knowledge or thought, you should cite it. On a similar
note, when you include a quote in writing, give a good transition
from the text before it to keep your essay flowing well.
The parenthetical citation has two parts, an author and a date.
Formatting details are given below. If the author's name is
given in the signal phrase preceding the citation, it may be omitted.
Details and Usage
Give the author's last name.
If there are two authors, separate
their names by "and."
If there are three authors, give
the first author's last name, followed by "et. al."
If work is anonymous, write "Anonymous"
in place of the author's name.
If the author is corporate or institutional,
use the abbreviation you gave in brackets in the reference.
- Give the four digit year of publication.
- If you are citing more than one reference by the same
author, give all the years, separating them by commas.
- If there is more than work by the same author in the
reference list, attach "a," "b,"
etc. to the end of the year both in the reference list and
- If there are authors with identical surnames, give
their initials here. (The names will be formatted
as they are in the reference list.)
||None (a single space)
- If the work was cited in a secondary source, give
the parenthetical citation for the original author, then
write "cited in" followed by the parenthetical
citation of the secondary source.
- If you are citing a specific page, Write "p"
followed by the page number(s) being cited, using digits.
- If you are citing information from more than one page,
separate consecutive page numbers with a hyphen. Do
not precede or follow the hyphen with any spaces.
- If you are citing the entire source, omit the page
- If you are citing a web source that does not have fixed
page numbers, do not include a page number. (Do
not include a page number based on a printout, because pagination
could vary for different printouts.)
If you wish to include multiple different citations
within one set of parentheses, separate them with a semicolon
. . . Smith's . . . (1958, 1963a, 1963b, 1967)
(Dawson GL 1986; Dawson WM 1986)
(Smith TL and Smith UV 1990)
(Smith, Jones, and others 1990)
(Smith, Jones, and others 1990; Dawson 1986a, 1986b)
(Powell 1858, cited in Forbes 1972)