Introduction

In-Text Citation

Books

Dictionaries/
Encyclopedias

Selections from Books

Periodicals

Online Sources

Other

Citing Other Sources in MLA Style

Several other research sources can be cited in MLA Style.  As a general rule, the Works Cited list entry should direct the reader to the original source, if possible.  It should describe details such as who presented the information, what the presentation was called, how it was presented, who published it, who sponsored it, when it was presented, when it was accessed, etc.  This page will provide examples of a few more sources that college students might use in their research; for additional assistance with citation, consult the Ready Reference Handbook or a reference librarian.  Information on additional sources in MLA style is presented on pages 335-339 of the 1998 edition of the Ready Reference Handbook and on pages 351-354 of the 1999 edition.  

The directions on this page deal with simple cases only.  You may need to adapt them to fit your sources using the other pages.  For example, the directions here for a lecture describe a lecture presented by one person.  If you are citing a lecture presented by two speakers, you need to look at the MLA's specifications for two authors, perhaps on the page for books.

Quick index to citation examples described on this page:

To cite a pamphlet, follow the same guidelines as for a book.


Lecture or Speech

The components of a Works Cited list entry for a lecture or speech, listed in the proper order:  

Component

Formatting Details

    Ending
Punctuation
Speaker(s)
  • Include the speaker's last name, followed by a comma, followed by the first name.

  • For more than one speaker, see the citation style conventions for a book.

  Period (.)
Title
  • Give the title of the presentation in quotation marks.
  • The period goes inside the quotation marks.  
  • If there is a title within the title or any quotation marks inside the title, transform the inner quotation marks to single quotes ("....'...'...").  
  • Click here for notes on capitalization.
  Period (.)
Organization
  • Include the name of the conference at which the speech was presented, or the sponsoring organization. 
  Period (.)
Location
  • Include the location of the conference, i.e. the city (and the state if the city isn't common).
  Period (.)
Date
  • Include the day, followed by month (abbreviated) and year (four digits), i.e. 28 Sept. 1993.  
  Period (.)

Citation Example (from The Ready Reference Handbook)

Fleenor, Juliann E.  "Illinois Women: Quilt-Making--History-Making."  Illinois,
     Beginning with Woman . . . Histories and Cultures [Conference].  Urbana-
     Champaign.  26 Mar. 1993.
(Dodds 338)

Citation Examples for Lectures at Juniata

Byron, Michael.  "The Universities Go to War: USAID and Higher Education in the 
     Republic of Vietnam."  Juniata College, Bookend Seminar.  Huntingdon, PA.  
     4 Apr. 2000. 
Kruse, Gerald.  "Using Massively Parallel Computers for Fluid Flow Simulation."  
     Juniata College, Mathematics Colloquium.  Huntingdon, PA.  24 Feb. 2000.

Interview

The components of a Works Cited list entry for an interview, listed in the proper order:  

Component

Formatting Details

    Ending
Punctuation
Interveiwee
  • Include the last name, followed by a comma, followed by the first name, of the person being interviewed.

  Period (.)
Label
  • If you are citing an interview you conducted yourself, write "Personal interview."
  • If you are citing an interview from television or radio, write "Interview" or "Interview with" followed by the name of the interviewer (in first-name-first order). 
  Period (.)
Interview Details
  • If you are citing a radio or television interview, also include:
    • The name of the program, italicized or underlined, followed by a period.
    • The name of the network, followed by a period.
    • The name of the affiliate carrying the broadcast, followed by a comma.
    • The city from which the affiliate broadcasts, followed by the ending period.
  Period (.)
Date
  • Include the day, followed by month (abbreviated) and year (four digits), i.e. 28 Sept. 1993.  
  Period (.)

Citation Examples (from The Ready Reference Handbook)

O'Connell, Edward J.  Personal Interview.  4 May 1993.
Oates, Joyce Carol.  Interview with Terry Gross.  Fresh Air.  Natl. Public
     Radio.  WHYY, Philadelphia.  3 Aug. 1993.
(Dodds 338)

Television or Radio Program

The components of a Works Cited list entry for a TV or radio program, listed in the proper order:  

Component

Formatting Details

    Ending
Punctuation
Title
  • Include the title of the program or the specific report in quotation marks.  

  • Click here for notes on capitalization.

  Period (.)
Larger Program or Series
  • If you are citing a report that is part of a larger program, write the name of the larger program or series, underlined or italicized. 
  Period (.)
People Involved with the Program
  • Include as many of the following people involved with the program as are available and relevant.  Precede each name with the appropriate abbreviation, and write all names in first-name-first order.  List the names in this order:
    • Narrator, preceded by "Narr."
    • Writer, preceded by "Writ."
    • Director, preceded by "Dir."
    • Performer, preceded by "Perf."
    • Introducer, preceded by "Introd."
    • Producer, preceded by "Prod."
  Period (.)
Station
  • Give the call letters of the station carrying the broadcast. 
  Comma (,)
City
  • Give the city from which the program was broadcast.  If it's not a well-known city, also give the state, using the postal state abbreviations
  Comma (,)
Date
  • Include the day, followed by month (abbreviated) and year (four digits), i.e. 28 Sept. 1993.  
  Period (.)

Citation Examples (from The Ready Reference Handbook)

"Hunger in America."  CBS Reports.  Narr. Charles Kuralt.  Writ. Peter Davis.
     Prod. Martin Carr.  WBBM, Chicago, 21 May 1968.
(Dodds 339)

Read the Notes on punctuation and spacing and on italicization and underlining.


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Created: 06/27/2000
Last Modified: 09/25/2002